Study of variations in the roasting time of gayo arabica coffee in the drying phase


  • Rahmat Fadhil Universitas Syiah Kuala/USK, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
  • S Safrizal Universitas Syiah Kuala/USK, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
  • Khairul Rizal Universitas Syiah Kuala/USK, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
  • Bambang Sukarno Putra Universitas Syiah Kuala/USK, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
  • Juli Firmansyah Universitas Serambi Mekkah, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Department of Physics Education, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.



Gayo Arabica coffee is a famous specialty coffee in Indonesia and abroad. Proper roasting is needed to produce high-quality coffee, including getting the desired coffee taste. This study contributes to roasting high-quality coffee, especially regarding the appropriate time variation in the drying phase. This study aims to analyze the roasting time of Gayo Arabica coffee in the drying phase based on the cupping score and sensory assessment. Coffee roasting in this study was carried out by modifying the time in the drying phase for 3:00, 4:00, and 5:00 minutes, while in the other phases (maillard and development), it was 4:00 and 3:00 minutes, respectively. The study parameters include roasting charts, roasting profiles, cupping scores by certified panelists (Q graders) and sensory assessments by panelists identified by the TOPSIS method. The TOPSIS is a decision-making method based on various alternatives that are ranked to get the best results with the highest value. The results showed that the best time treatment in the drying phase based on the cupping score was the F2 treatment as rank 1 (score 85.00), treatment F1 as rank 2 (score 83.50), and treatment F3 as rank 3 (score 81.00). Meanwhile, the sensory assessment by the panelists using the TOPSIS method showed the same thing for rank 1, namely the F2 treatment with a value of 0.88. However, it is different for rank 2, namely the F3 treatment with a value of 0.69 and ranks 3 is the F1 treatment with a value of 0.17. It can be concluded that the assessment by certified and identified panelists, who can be considered representative of consumers, show the same conclusion that coffee roasted with the best treatment in the drying phase is 4 minutes (F2).

Key words: Cupping score; drying phase; identified panelists; TOPSIS method; Q grader; roasted.


AHSAN, H. et al. Farm to consumer: Factor affecting the organoleptic characteristics of coffee. II: Post-harvest

processing factors. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 17(5):184-1237, 2018.

ARÉVALO, V. et al. Effect of different drying airflows and harvest periods on the quality of specialty coffee (Coffea arabica L.). Revista Bionatura, 8(1)17, 2023.

ARSENY, K. The 2019 world coffee roasting championships who won, and how did they roast. Banda Aceh. 2019. Available in: <>.

Access in: December, 15, 2021.

BABAK, D. R.; ABDULLAH, Y.; PELIN, U. Intuitionistic Fuzzy TOPSIS method for green supplier selection problem. Soft Computing, 24:2215-2228, 2020.

BOTTAZZI, D. S. et al. A numerical approach for the analysis of the coffee roasting process. Journal of Food Engineering, 112:243-252, 2012.

CHARLES, S.; BETINA P. F. The perfect meal: The multisensory science of food and dining. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014. 400p.

CHARLES, S.; VANESSA, H.; BETINA, P. F. Assessing the impact of the tableware and other contextual variables on multisensory flavor perception. Flavor, 1(1):1-7, 2012.

CHARLES, S. et al. On tasty color and colorful tastes? Assessing, explaining, and utilizing crossmodal correspondences between colors and basic taster. Flavor, 4(1):1-23, 2015.

CHOO, E. Belajar roasting kopi (Roasting Kopi Learning). Banda Aceh. 2019. Available in: <

majalah/roasting-kopi>. Access in: February, 28, 2021.

COOPER, A. The anatomy of a roast profile. Banda Aceh. 2017. Available in: <

of-a-roast-profile>. Access in: February, 28, 2021.

FADHIL R.; SAFRIZAL S.; MUHIR A. Sensory taste assessment of Gayo Volcano Arabica Coffee of variety using the analytical hierarchy process method. Sustainable Development of Mountain Territories, 14(2):263-268, 2022.

FADHIL, R.; AGUSTINA, R. A multi-criteria sensory assessment of Cucumis melo (L.) using fuzzy-Eckenrode and fuzzy-TOPSIS methods. Foods and Raw Materials, 7(2):339-347, 2019.

FADHIL, R.; NURBA, N. Comparison of gayo arabica coffee taste sensory scoring system between eckenrode and fuzzyeckenrode

methods. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 365(1):012040, 2019.

FADHIL, R. et al. A prospective strategy for institutional development of Gayo coffee agroindustry in Aceh province, Indonesia. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 24(6):959-966, 2018a.

FADHIL, R. et al. Formulation for development strategy of gayo coffee agroindustry institution using interpretive structural modeling (ISM). Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 66(2):487-495, 2018b.

FADHIL, R.; NURBA, D.; SUKMAWATI, E. Sensory assessment of gayo arabica coffee taste based on various varieties and manual brewing devices. Coffee Science, 16:e161918, 2021.

FADHIL, R.; SULAIMAN, M. I.; FARHAN, M. R. Decisionmaking system for acceptance of gayo arabica coffee steeped products with a mixture of herbs using the moora method. International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, 17(2):263-271, 2022.

FADRI, R.; SAYUTI, K.; NAZIR, N.; SULIANSYAH, I. The Effect of Temperature and Roasting Duration on Physical Characteristics and Sensory Quality Of Singgalang Arabica Coffee (Coffea Arabica) Agam Regency. Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology, 3:189-201, 2019.

GAYO, M. U. C.; RUSDI, M.; FAZLINA, Y. D. Distribusi spasial lahan kopi eksisting berdasarkan ketinggian dan arahan fungsi kawasan di kabupaten aceh tengah (Spasial Distribution of Eksisting Coffee Area Base On height and Area Function Direction in Central Aceh District). Journal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Pertanian Unsyiah, 4(3):1-7, 2018.

GINTING, G. et al. Technical approach of TOPSIS in decision making. International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering & Research (IJRTER), 3(8):58-64, 2017.

HASAN, H. N.; ABBAS S. M. An improvement of quantitative strategic planning matrix using multiple criteria decision making and fuzzy numbers. Applied Soft Computing, 12(8):2246- 2253, 2012.

HWANG, C. L.; YOON, K. Multliple attribute decision making: Methods and aplications, A state of the art survey. Springer Verlag. Berlin Heidelberg, 1981. 269p.

LIANG, H. et al. Chapter 8: Comparison of different multicriteria decision-making methodologies for sustainability decision making. In: SCIPIONI, A.; MANZARDO, A.; REN, J. Hydrogen economy. p. 189-224, 2017.

JACK, A. WCRC Results All the details from the World Coffee Roasting Championship 2017. Banda Aceh. 2017. Available in: <>. Access in: December, 15, 2021.

JESPER, A. et al. The effect of roast development time modulations on the sensory profile and chemical composition of the coffee brew as measured by NMR and DHS-GC–MS. Beverages, 6(4):70, 2020.

JULIYANTI; MOHAMMAD, I. I.; IMAM, M. Pemilihan guru berprestasi menggunakan metode ahp dan topsis (Selection of Outstanding Teachers Using the Ahp and Topsis Method). Prosiding Seminar Nasional Penelitian, Pendidikan dan Penerapan MIPA,

Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta. 2011.

KASWINDI, K.; BAMBANG, S. P.; RITA, K. Kajian mutu kopi arabika gayo dengan perlakuan variasi suhu dan lama penyangraian (Study of Arabica Gayo Coffee Quality under Temperature and Roasting Duration Treatments). Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Pertanian

Unsyiah, 2(2):416-422, 2017.




How to Cite

FADHIL, R.; SAFRIZAL, S.; RIZAL, K. .; PUTRA, B. S.; FIRMANSYAH, J. Study of variations in the roasting time of gayo arabica coffee in the drying phase. Coffee Science - ISSN 1984-3909, [S. l.], v. 18, p. e182085, 2023. DOI: 10.25186/.v18i.2085. Disponível em: Acesso em: 13 jul. 2024.