Initial performance of coffee trees with different fertilization and irrigation management




Coffee is one of the main agricultural commodities in the world. However, due to its sensitivity to water stress and changes in the availability of finite sources of nutrients and the constant search for a more sustainable agriculture, it is necessary to modulate the responses of plants to soil water and the real nutritional demand of the coffee tree. Thus, the objective of this work was to analyze the initial performance of arabica coffee grown with or without water restriction and with five different soil fertilization managements, in order to propose more techniques to optimize coffee production. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in the experimental area of the Federal University of Viçosa, in the city of Viçosa-MG. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x5 factorial scheme, with two irrigation depths (40% and 80% of the available water in the soil) and five fertilization managements (conventional 100% of the recommended dose, controlled release of 80 and 100% of N and recommended K and organomineral 80 and
100% N and K of the recommended dose). In view of the observed results, it can be observed that water restriction in the initial period of coffee development provided a reduction in the variables of root and shoot growth of the plants, regardless of the soil fertilization management used. In environments with greater water restriction, no significant difference was observed between the studied fertilizers and in an environment without water restriction, the controlled release fertilizer 80% presented the highest global growth averages. Water management provided a greater effect on coffee nutrient dynamics than duly studied fertilization management.

Key words: Coffea arabica L.; Coffee nutrition, sustainability, water deficit.


AMARAL, J. F. T. et al. Eficiência de utilização de nutrientes por genótipos de cafeeiro. Ciência Rural, 41(4):621-629. 2011.

ARAÚJO, F. H. V. et al. Effects of mycorrhizal association and phosphate fertilization on the initial growth of coffee plants. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical, 50:e58646, 2020.

AZAD, N. et al. An analysis of optimal fertigation implications in different soils on reducing environmental impacts of agricultural nitrate leaching. Scientific Reports, 10:7797, 2020.

BARBOSA, I. P. et al. Recommendation of Coffea arabica genotypes by factor analysis. Euphytica, 215(178):1-10, 2019.

BIA, S.; KANG, Y.; WAN, S. Drip fertigation regimes for winter wheat in the North China Plain. Agricultural Water Management, 228:105885, 2020.

BRAGANÇA, R. et al. Impactos das mudanças climáticas no zoneamento agroclimatológico do café arábica no Espírito Santo. Revista Agroombiente On-line, 10(1):77-82, 2016.

CANO-RUIZ, J. et al. Fertigation of Arundo donax L. with different nitrogen rates for biomass production. Biomass and Bioenergy, 133:105451, 2020.

CANTUÁRIO, F. S. et al. Influência de tensões de água no solo e aplicação de silício na altura de plantas de pimentão cultivado em ambiente protegido. XXV CONIRD – Congresso Nacional de Irrigação e Drenagem UFS - São Cristóvão/SE, 64, 474-479. 2015.

CHEMURA, A. et al. Climate change and specialty coffee potential in Ethiopia. Scientific Reports, 11:8097, 2021.

CIESIELCZUK, T. et al. Assessment of effectiveness of organo-mineral fertilizer made of coffee spent grounds and biomass ash. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 20(2):73-78, 2019.

COLODETTI, T. V. et al. Managing the number of orthotropic stems in Coffea arabica as strategy for cultivation at low-altitude regions. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 14:447-454, 2020.

CONSTANTINO, L. M. et al. Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) Emergence from Ground Fruits Across Varying Altitudes and Climate Cycles, and the Effect on Coffee Tree Infestation. Neotropical Entomology, 50:374-387, 2021.

CORDELL, D. et al. Towards global phosphorus security: a systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options. Chemosphere, 84:747-758. 2011.

CRUZ, C. D.; REGAZZI, A. J.; CARNEIRO, P. C. S. Modelos biométricos aplicados ao melhoramento genético. Viçosa: UFV, Imprensa universitária, v.1. 2012.

DAMATTA, F. M.; RAMALHO, J. D. Impacts of drought and temperature stress on coffee physiology and production: A review. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 1(1):55-81, 2006.

DIAS, K. G. L et al. Coffee yield and phosphate nutrition provided to plants by various phosphorus sources and levels. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 39:110-120, 2015.

DOMINGHETTI, A. W. et al. Nitrogen loss by volatilization of nitrogen fertilizers applied to coffee orchard. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 40(2):173-183, 2016.

EPSTEIN, E.; BLOOM, A. J. Nutrição mineral de plantas: princípios e perspectivas. 2nd edn. Planta, Londrina, p.1-404, 2006.

FAGERIA, N. K. Otimização da eficiência nutricional na produção das culturas. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, 2(1):6-16, 1998.

FAN, Y. et al. Nutrient balance and soil changes in plastic greenhouse vegetable production. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 117:77-92, 2020.

FANG, L. et al. Feasibility of wet-extraction of phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) for phosphate fertilizer production: A critical review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 51(9):939-971, 2021.

FAROOQ, H. et al. Interactive effects of saline water irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on tomato growth and yield. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 30(04):3557-3564, 2021.

FLETCHER, D. M. M. et al. Precipitation-optimised targeting of nitrogen fertilisers in a model maize cropping system. Science of The Total Environment. 756:144051, 2021.

FERREIRA, D. F. Estatística Multivariada, 3°ed, Editora UFLA, p.642, 2018.

FERREIRA, D. S. et al. Exploring the multivariate technique in the discrimination of Coffea arabica L. cultivars regarding the production and quality of grains under the effect of water management. Euphytica, 217(118):1-11, 2021a.

FERREIRA, D. S. et al. Physico-chemical and sensory interactions of arabica coffee genotypes in different water regimes. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 1(1):1-9, 2021b.

GLAB, T. et al. Optimization of turfgrass fertigation rate and frequency. Agricultural Water Management, 234(1):106107, 2020.

HAMIDI, N. H. et al. Soil nitrogen sorption using charcoal and wood ash. Agronomy, 11(9), 1801, 2021.

HINNAH, F. D. Estimativa da área foliar da berinjela em função das dimensões foliares. Bragantia, 73(2):213-218, 2014.

LAWNICZAK, A. E. et al. Impact of agriculture and land use on nitrate contamination in groundwater and running waters in central-west Poland. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188(3):172, 2016.

MACHADO, L. S. et al. Efficiency and response of conilon coffee genotypes to nitrogen supply. African Jurnal of Biotechnology, 15(32):1892-1898, 2016.

MALAVOLTA, E. Manual de química agrícola: adubos e adubação. 3.ed. São Paulo: Agronômica Ceres, 1981. 594p.

MALAVOLTA, E. Manual de nutrição mineral de plantas. São Paulo, Agronômica Ceres, 2006. 638p.

MARSCHNER, H. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. London, Academic Press. 889p. 1995.

MARTINS, L. D. et al. Exploring the nutritional efficiency of genotypes of Coffea arabica L. from different parental lineages in contrasting environments for N availability. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8:435-443, 2019.

MARTINEZ, H. E. P. et al. Water deficit changes nitrate uptake and expression of some nitrogen related genes in coffee-plants (Coffea arabica L.). Scientia Horticulturae, 267:109254, 2020.

MARTINEZ, H. E. P.; NEVES, J. C. L. Nutrição mineral, calagem, gessagem e adubação. In: Sakiyama NS et al. Café arábica, do plantio a colheita. Editora UFV, Viçosa-MG, 1.ed, p.64-103, 2015.

MARTINS, L. D. et al. Genotypes of conilon coffee can be simultaneously clustered for efficiencies of absorption and utilization of N, P and K. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 11(38):3633-3642, 2016.

MESSIGA, A. J. et al. Supplement of biochar and vermicompost amendments in coir and peat growing media improves N management and yields of leafy vegetables. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 102(1):39-52, 2020.

MIRANDA, F. R.; DRUMOND, L. C. S.; RONCHI, C. P. Synchronizing coffee blossoming and fruit ripening in irrigated crops of the Brazilian Cerrado Mineiro Region. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 14(4):605-613, 2020.

MOREIRA, T. R. et al. Global warming and the effects of climate change on coffee production. In: PEREIRA, L. L.; MOREIRA, T. R. Quality determinants in coffe production. Food Engineering Series, Springer. 1. 2021.

NAGAKURA, J. et al. Growth and tranpiration of japonese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtuse) seedlings in response to soil water content. Tree Physiology, 24:1203­1208, 2004.

NOVAIS, R. F.; SMYTH, T. J. Fósforo em solo e planta em condições tropicais. UFV, editora UFV. Viçosa. 1999.

NUNES, E. M. et al. Análise de crescimento e assimilação de nitrogênio em plantas de milho (Zea mays L.). Revista Verde Agroecologia e Desenvolvimentp Sustentável. 8:72-76, 2013.

PANTANO, G. et al. Sustainability in phosphorus use: a question of water and food security. Química Nova, 39(6):732-740, 2016.

PEIXOTO FILHO, J. U. et al. Produtividade de alface com doses de esterco de frango, bovino e ovino em cultivos sucessivos. Revista brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambienta, 17(4):419-427, 2013.

PINTO, H. S. et al. Aquecimento global e a nova geografia da produção agrícola no Brasil. Embrapa-Cepagri, São Paulo. 2008.

PIZETTA, S. C. et al. Análise do crescimento do cafeeiro Arábica, em relação à fração de água transpirável do solo. Coffee Science, 11(1):46-54, 2016.

PHAM, T.T. et al. Proposed Techniques to Supplement the Loss in Nutrient Cycling for Replanted Coffee Plantations in Vietnam. Agronomy, 10(905), 2020.

PROCHNOW, L. I.; PETERSON, H.; BRUULSEMA, T. Acesso das plantas ao legado de fósforo, com foco nos trópicos. Informações Agronômicas NPCT, 1, 9-11, 2019.

R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. 2021. Avaliable in: <> (Accessed on december, 10, 2021).

RIBEIRO, W. R. et al. Crescimento do cafeeiro conilon cultivar “ES 8122-Jequitibá” em função da fração de água transpirável no solo. IRRIGA, 24(3):512-526, 2019.

RIBEIRO, W. R. et al. Water Deficit as a Limiting Factor to the Initial Growth of Coffee Conilon Variety Diamante. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 22(5):1-11, 2018.

RODRIGUES, R. R. et al. Crescimento inicial do cafeeiro conilon sob déficit hídrico no solo. Coffee Science, 11(1):33-38, 2016.

RÖMHELD, V. Diagnóstico de deficiência e toxicidade de nutrientes. Marschner's Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 299-312, 2012.

SANTOS, M. O. et al. Photochemical efficiency correlated with candidate gene expression promote coffee drought tolerance. Scientific reports, 11:7436, 2021.

SCHWAN, M. G. et al. Yield of conilon coffee under different irrigation managements. IRRIGA, 25(2):704-712, 2020.

SILVA, M. A. V. et al. Jovens de aroeira submetidas a diferentes regimes hídricos. Revista Árvore, 32(2):335-344, 2008.

SILVA, T. G. F. et al. Indicadores de eficiência do uso da água e de nutrientes de clones de palma forrageira em condições de sequeiro no Semiárido brasileiro. Bragantia, 3:184-191, 2014.

SMITH, A. M.; GILBERTSON, L. M. Rational ligand design to improve agrochemical delivery efficiency and advance agriculture sustainability. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 6(11):13599-13610, 2018.

SOARES, L. S. et al. Interaction between climate, flowering and production of dry coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in Minas Gerais. Coffee Science, 16:e161786, 2021.

SOUZA, A. J. J. et al. Doses de fósforo no desenvolvimento inicial de cafeeiros em solos com diferentes texturas. Coffee Science, 9(2):284-288, 2014.

SOUZA, B. P. et al. Gas exchanges and chlorophyll fluorescence of young coffee plants submitted to water and nitrogen stresses. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 43(16):2455-2465, 2020.

TAIZ, L. et al. Fisiologia e Desenvolvimento Vegetal. 6° ed. 59 Porto Alegre: Artmed. 2017.

TASCA, F. A. et al. Volatilização De Amônia do solo após a aplicação de ureia convencional ou com inibidor de urease. Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Solo, 35:493-509, 2011.

TIMILSENA, Y. P. et al. Enhanced efficiency fertilisers: a review of formulation and nutrient release patterns. Journal Science Food Agriculture, 95(6):1131-1142, 2015.

TOMAZ, M. A. et al. Eficiência de absorção e utilização de boro, zinco, cobre e manganês em mudas enxertadas de cafeeiro. Revista Ceres, 58(1):108-114, 2011.

VENANCIO, L. P. et al. Impact of drought associated with high temperatures on Coffea canephora plantations: a case study in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Scientific Reports. 10:19719, 2020.

VICENTE, M. R. et al. Efeito de diferentes lâminas de irrigaçãp nas variáveis de desenvolvimento e produçao do cafeeiro irrigado por pivô central. Irriga, 20(3):528-543, 2015.

VOLPI, I. et al. Improving the management of mineral fertilizers for nitrous oxide mitigation: the effect of nitrogen fertilizer type, urease and nitrification inhibitors in two different textured soils. Geoderma, 307:181-188, 2017.

VORONKOVA, N. A. et al. Efficiency of biologization of agriculture in Western Siberia (on the example of the Omsk region). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 548:022071, 2020.

WADT, P. G. S. et al. Faixas de Suficiência para Interpretação dos Teores de Nutrientes Foliares em Pimentalonga (Piper hispidinervum) – Primeira Aproximação. Embrapa Rio Branco, Circular Técnica, 61:1-6, 2012.

YUAN, J. et al. A case study targeting K fertilizer chemical synthesis with complete valorization of extraction by-products as an option. Green Chemistry, 22:6954-6966, 2020.

ZHAO, R. F. et al. Fertilization and nitrogen balance in a wheat–maize rotation system in North China. Agronomy Journal, 98:938-945, 2006.




How to Cite

SILVA JÚNIOR, J. G. da; PIN, I. P.; FERREIRA, D. S. .; CASTANHEIRA, D. T. Initial performance of coffee trees with different fertilization and irrigation management. Coffee Science - ISSN 1984-3909, [S. l.], v. 17, p. e171981, 2022. DOI: 10.25186/.v17i.1981. Disponível em: Acesso em: 16 apr. 2024.