Effect of coffee roasting on the cupping quality of coffee


  • Kuan-Fu Ting Department of Artificial Intelligence for Intelligent Manufacturing Systems, National Tsing Hua University. Hsinchu, Taiwan, Taiwan, ROC. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2686-8310
  • James C. Chen Department of Artificial Intelligence for Intelligent Manufacturing Systems, National Tsing Hua University. Hsinchu, Taiwan, Taiwan, ROC . https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8390-9807
  • Tzu-Li Chen National Taiwan University of Science and Technology https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2025-8853




Coffee roasting is considered an important process that influences coffee cupping quality, nutrient composition, and consumer preference. Complex chemical reactions during the roasting process can change the chemical constituents of green coffee, thereby affecting its flavor and compositions. To the best of our knowledge, using the same roasting time, roasted bean color, or final roasting temperature but different time-temperature profiles will cause different cupping qualities. This study aimed to determine and quantify how the different roasting time-temperature profiles affect light-roasted coffee cupping qualities, such as flavor, aftertaste, acidity, body, balance, and overall. Herein, a rising (ROR) temperature rate between 150 °C and 185 °C was found to be the most important roasting stage affecting the cupping quality of light-roasted coffee. Moreover, the roast profile was not found to influence the coffee body during light roasting.

Key words: Coffee roasting; Coffee cupping test; Flavor; Design of experiments.



AMES, J.; GUY, R. C. E.; KIPPING, G. J. Effect of pH, temperature, and moisture on the Formation of volatile compounds in Glycine/Glucose model systems. Food Chemistry, 49(9):4315-4323, 2001.

BAQUETA, M. R.; COQUEIRO, A.; VALDERRAMA, P. Brazilian coffee blends: A simple and fast method by near-infrared spectroscopy for the determination of the sensory attributes elicited in professional coffee cupping. Journal of Food Science, 84(6):1247-1255, 2019.

BENZING-PURDIE, L. M.; RIPMEESTER, J. A.; RATCLIFFE, C. I. Effects of temperature on maillard reaction products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 33(1):31-33, 1985.

BOEKEL, M. A. J. S. Formation of flavour compounds in the Maillard reaction. Biotechnology Advances, 24(2):230-233, 2006.

BORÉM, F. M. et al. Coffee sensory quality study based on spatial distribution in the Mantiqueira mountain region of Brazil. Journal of Sensory Studies, 35(2):e12552, 2020.

BOTTAZZI, D. et al. A numerical approach for the analysis of the coffee roasting process. Journal of Food Engineering, 112(3):243-252, 2012.

CHIH-YING, L. Z. et al. Effects of water content on volatile generation and peptide degradation in the maillard reaction of glycine, diglycine, and triglycine. Food Chemistry, 53(16):6443-6447, 2005.

DI DONFRANCESCO, B.; GUTIERREZ, G. N.; CHAMBERS, E. Comparison of results from cupping and descriptive sensory analysis of colombian brewed coffee. Journal of Sensory Studies, 29(4):301-311, 2014.

DONG, W. et al. Comparative evaluation of the volatile profiles and taste properties of roasted coffee beans as affected by drying method and detected by electronic nose, electronic tongue, and HS-SPME-GC-MS. Food Chemistry, 272:723-731, 2019.

ENDESHAW, H.; BELAY, A. Optimization of the roasting conditions to lower acrylamide content and improve the nutrient composition and antioxidant properties of Coffea arabica. PLoS One, 15(8):e0237265, 2020.

FLAMBEAU, K. J.; LEE, W. J.; YOON, J. Discrimination and geographical origin prediction of washed specialty Bourbon coffee from different coffee growing areas in Rwanda by using electronic nose and electronic tongue. Food Science and Biotechnology, 26(5):1245-1254, 2017.

FRANCE, D. The coffee genome provides insight into the convergent evolution of caffeine biosynthesis. Science, 345(6201):1181-1184, 2014.

GIACALONE, D. et al. Inter‐rater reliability of “clean cup” scores by coffee experts. Journal of Sensory Studies, 35(5):e12596, 2020.

GLOESS, A. N. et al. Evidence of different flavour formation dynamics by roasting coffee from different origins: On-line analysis with PTR-ToF-MS. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 365-366:324-337, 2014.

LEME, D. S. et al. Recognition of coffee roasting degree using a computer vision system. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 156:312-317, 2019.

MARTINS, S. I. F. S.; JONGEN, W. M. F. J.; van BOEKEL, M. A. J. S. A review of maillard reaction in food and implications to kinetic modelling. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 11(9-10):364-373, 2001.

MÜNCHOW, M. et al. Roasting conditions and coffee flavor: A multi-study empirical investigation. Beverages, 6(2):29, 2020.

OFFICIAL RULES AND REGULATIONS. 2020 World coffee roasting championship p. 25-30. 2020. Available in: https://www.dropbox.com/s/d62qgd9jp7fxidi/2020%20WCRC%20Rules%20and%20Regulations%20-%201NOV2019.pdf?dl=0. Access in: 21 February 2024.

OLIVEROS, N. J. A. H. et al. Experimental study of dynamic porosity and its effects on simulation of the coffee beans roasting. Journal of Food Engineering, 199:100-112, 2017.

PETISCA, C. et al. Furans and other volatile compounds in ground roasted and espresso coffee using headspace solid-phase microextraction: Effect of roasting speed. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 91(3):233-241, 2013.

SCHENKER, S. Investigations on the hot air roasting of coffee beans. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich., 2000. 174p.

SCHOUTEN, M. A. et al. Acrylamide formation and antioxidant activity in coffee during roasting - A systematic study. Food Chemistry, 343:128514, 2021.

SICHAYA, S. et al. Identification of compounds that negatively impact coffee flavor quality using untargeted liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 68(38):10424-10431, 2020.

SPECIALTY COFFEE ASSOCIATION - SCA. Statistics & Standards Committee Of The SCA. 2003. Cupping Protocols. Retrieved from Available in: https://sca.coffee/research/protocols-best-practices Access in: 21 February 2024.

STEFAN S. T. R. Chapter 11 - The roast: Creating the beans' signature. In: FOLMER, B. (Ed.). The craft and science of coffee. Elsevier Inc., United States. p. 245-271, 2017.

WORKU, M.; DUCHATEAU, L.; BOECKX, P. Reproducibility of coffee quality cupping scores delivered by cupping centers in Ethiopia. Journal of Sensory Studies, 31(5):423-429, 2016.

YANG, N. et al. Determination of volatile marker compounds of common coffee roast defects. Food Chemistry, 211:206-214, 2016.




How to Cite

TING, K.-F.; CHEN, J. C.; CHEN, T.-L. Effect of coffee roasting on the cupping quality of coffee. Coffee Science - ISSN 1984-3909, [S. l.], v. 19, p. e192174, 2024. DOI: 10.25186/.v19i.2174. Disponível em: https://coffeescience.ufla.br/index.php/Coffeescience/article/view/2174. Acesso em: 13 jul. 2024.