Physicochemical and sensory profile of commercial wine coffee in the Gayo Highlands, Indonesia




The Gayo Highlands is one of the largest Arabica coffee producing areas in Indonesia. Wine coffee processing is currently very popular in the Gayo Highlands. This study aims to determine of physicochemical and sensory characteristics of commercial wine coffee in Gayo Highlands. Samples were obtained from active wine coffee producers in Central Aceh and Bener Meriah. Analysis was carried out on coffee beans and brewing, including analysis of bean size, moisture content, color, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total phenolic content (TPC), and cupping quality. The results found that Gayo arabica wine coffee has a medium size, moisture content of 8.53%-11.67%, and yellow to brown color. Physicochemical characteristics of brewed wine coffee also showed varying results. The pH of coffee wine brewing ranges from 4.68 to 4.95, TDS 3.93 to 4.5 oBrix, and TPC 12.82 to 30 GAE mg/g. Sensory analysis was conducted using the cupping test method. The cupping score of wine coffee on each attribute varied, except body and sweetness. The wine coffee aroma obtained was 6 (good) to 7.75 (very good), wine coffee flavor 6 (good) to 7.5 (very good), wine coffee aftertaste 6 (good) to 7.0 (very good), wine coffee acidity 6 (good) to 7.0 (very good), wine coffee balance 6 (good) to 6.75 (good), overall wine coffee 6 (good) to 7 (very good). Specific fruit aroma characteristics that dominated the coffee wine were pineapple, banana, passion fruit, lemon/lime, and berries. Aroma characteristics related to fermentation, namely winey, vinegar, overripe, and soury were detected in all wine coffee samples. Further research is needed to analyze the more complex chemical
components of wine coffee (volatile and non-volatile) and their correlation with brewing quality to obtain more comprehensive scientific information on wine coffee quality.

Key words: Gayo wine coffee; Chemical characteristic; Cupping test; Sensory profile.


ABUBAKAR, Y. et al. Effect of varieties and processing practices on the physical and sensory characteristics of Gayo Arabica specialty coffee. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 523:012027, 2017.

ABUBAKAR, Y. et al. Effect of blend percentage and roasting degree on sensory quality of arabica-robusta coffee blend. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 425:012081, 2020.

ABUBAKAR, Y.; HASNI, D.; WATI, S.A. Analisis kualitas buah merah kopi arabika Gayo dan korelasinya dengan kualitas biji pada ketinggian berbeda. Jurnal Tanaman Industri Dan Penyegar, 9(1):1-14, 2022.

ABUBAKAR, Y. et al. Influence of cultivars and cultivation land slope on sensory quality of Gayo arabica coffee. Industria: Jurnal Teknologi dan Manajemen Agroindustri, 12 (2): 156-168, 2023.

ADNAN, A.; HÖRSTEN, D. V.; PAWELZIK, E. Rapid prediction of moisture content in intact green coffee beans using near infrared spectroscopy. Foods, 6:38, 2017.

ALNSOUR, L. et al. Quantification of total phenols and antioxidants on coffee samples of different origins and evaluation of the effect of degree of roasting on their levels. Molecules, 27(5):1591, 2022.

BADAN PUSAT STATISTIK PROVINSI ACEH, Provinsi Aceh dalam Angka 2022, BPS Provinsi Aceh. Acces in: March 7, 2024

BATISTA, L.; CHALFOUN, S. Quality of coffee bean in cocoa and coffee fermentations. :n 114–124 (Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2015).

BOOT, W. Cupping for Flavor vs. Defects. 2005. Roast Magazine. Available in: Acces in: March 5, 2024.

CANTERGIANI, E. et al. Characterization of mouldy/earthy defect in green Mexican coffee. Proceedings of the 18th ASIC, Helsinki, Finland p. 43-49, 1999.

CLIFFORD, M. N. et al. Chlorogenic acids and the acyl-quinic acids: Discovery, biosynthesis, bioavailability and bioactivity. Natural Product Reports, 34:1391-1421, 2017.

DAIROBBI, A. et al. Kajian mutu wine coffee arabika gayo. Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Pertanian Unsyiah, 3(4):822-829, 2018.

DAVID, W. et al. Characteristics of commercial single-origin organic coffee in Indonesia. Food Science and Technology, 43:e118522, 2022.

DE BRUYN, F. et al. Exploring the impacts of postharvest processing on the microbiota and metabolite profiles during green coffee bean production. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 83(1):e02398-16, 2017.

DE MELO PEREIRA, et al. Exploring the impacts of postharvest processing on the aroma formation of coffee beans-A review. Food Chemistry, 272:441-452, 2019.

DE OLIVEIRA, A. C. J. de. et al. First description of bacterial and fungal communities in Colombian coffee beans fermentation analysed using Illumina-based amplicon sequencing. Scientific Reports, 9:8794, 2019.

DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF PLANTATIONS. Coffee Production by Province in Indonesia, 2017-2021. 2022. Minist. Agric. Repub. Indonesia. Available in: Acces in: November 27, 2023.

EL-MAGEED M. A. A. Development of volatile compounds of avocado and casimiroa during fruit maturation. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 15:89-99, 2007.

FARCUH, M. et al. Sensory, physicochemical and volatile compound analysis of short and long shelf-life melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes at harvest and after postharvest storage. Food Chemistry: X, 8: 100107, 2020.

HAILE, M.; KANG, W. H. The role of microbes in coffee fermentation and their impact on coffee quality. Journal of Food Quality, Article ID 4836709, p. 1-6, 2019.

HAILE, M. et al. Comparison of the antioxidant activities and volatile compounds of coffee beans obtained using digestive bio-processing (Elephant Dung Coffee) and commonly known processing methods. Antioxidants, 9(5):408, 2020.

HALL, R. D.; TREVISAN, F.; DE VOS, R. C. H. Coffee berry and green bean chemistry-Opportunities for improving cup quality and crop circularity. Food Research International, 151:110825, 2022.

INDIARTO, R. et al. In vitro Antioxidant activity and profile of polyphenol compounds extracts and their fractions on cacao beans. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 22:34-44, 2019.

JUANDA et al. Analysis of Gayo wine-coffee processing facility development. IOP Conference. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 951:012094, 2022.

KOSALOS, J. et al. SCAA arabica green coffee defect handbook. 2013. Specialty Coffee Association of America. Available in: Access in: March 4, 2024.

LÓPEZ-BARRERA D. M. et al. Spent coffee grounds, an innovative source of colonic fermentable compounds, inhibit inflammatory mediators in vitro. Food Chemistry, 212:282-290, 2016.

MAKSUM, A. et al. Optimization of phenolic compounds in robusta green beans coffee through the wet fermentation process with response surface methodology. Agrointek, 15(3):825-832, 2021.

MORA-VILLALOBOS, J. A. et al. Multi product lactic acid bacteria fermentations: A review. Fermentation, 6(1):23, 2020.

MULATO. Adopsi teknik karbonik maserasi pada fermentasi buah kopi (wine coffee). 2022 Available in: Access in: March 4, 2024.

MUZAIFA, M.; HASNI, D. Exploration study of gayo specialty coffee (Coffea arabica L): chemical compounds, sensory profile and physical appearance. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 15:486-491, 2016.

MUZAIFA, M. et al. Mutu sensori kopi luwak asal dataran tinggi gayo. Agrointek, 15:817-824, 2021.

MUZAIFA, M. et al. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of three types of wine coffees from Bener Meriah Regency, Aceh Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science,1183:012061, 2023.

PAPAGIANNI, M. Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria for the production of industrially important compounds. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 3(4):e201210003, 2012.

PEREIRA, G. V. M. et al. Potential of lactic acid bacteria to improve the fermentation and quality of coffee during on-farm processing. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 51(7):1689-1695, 2016.

PEREIRA, L. L. et al. Physicochemical parameters of arabica fermented coffee in different altitudes. Coffee Science, 16:e161877, 2021.

PÉREZ, V. O. et al. Effect of prolonged fermentations of coffee mucilage with different stages of maturity on the quality and chemical composition of the bean. Fermentation, 8(10):519, 2022.

POISSON, N. et al. New insight into the role of sucrose in the generation of α-diketones upon coffee roasting. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 66:2422-2431, 2017.

POLTRONIERI, P.; ROSSI. F. Challenges in specialty coffee processing and quality assurance. Challenges, 7:19, 2016.

PURBA, P.; SUKARTIKO, A.C; MAKHMUDUN, A. Analisis mutu fisik dan citarasa kopi indikasi geografis arabika gayo berdasarkan ketinggian tempat. Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, 7:83, 2020.

REH, C. T. et al. Water content determination in green coffee - Method comparison to study specificity and accuracy. Food Chemistry, 96(3):423-430, 2006.

ROCHÍN-MEDINA, J. J. Increase of content and bioactivity of total phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds through solid state fermentation by Bacillus clausii. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55:915-923, 2018.

SAPUTRI, M.; LIOE, H. N.; WIJAYA, C. H. Pemetaan karakteristik kimia biji kopi arabika gayo dan robusta gayo. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan, 31:76-85, 2020.

SILVA, C. F. et al. Evaluation of a potential starter culture for enhances quality of coffee fermentation. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 29:235-247, 2013.

SPECIALTY COFFEE ASSOCIATION - SCA. Protocols & best practices. 2019. Available in: Acces in: April 20, 2023.

STANDAR NASIONAL INDONESIA, SNI 01-2907-2008. Syarat mutu biji kopi. Jakarta Indonesia, 2008. Available in: <>. Acces in : September 25, 2023.

SUNARHARUM, W.; FARHAN, M. Effect of manual brewing techniques on the sensory profiles of Arabica coffees (Aceh Gayo wine process and Bali Kintamani honey process). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 454:012099, 2020.

TORRES, V. et al. Ecological quality as a coffee quality enhancer. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 43:19, 2023.

TOWAHA, J.; RUBIYO, R. Mutu fisik biji dan citarasa kopi Arabika hasil fermentasi mikroba probiotik asal pencernaan luwak. Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Pertanian. 3:61-70, 2016.

WIDAYAT, H. P. et al. Chemical analysis of cascara tea from wine coffee processing with a different fermentation times. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 667:012104, 2021.

YUSIANTO.; WIDYOTOMO, S. Mutu dan citarasa kopi Arabika hasil beberapa perlakuan fermentasi: Suhu, jenis wadah, dan penambahan agens fermentasi. Pelita Perkebunan, 29:220-239, 2013.




How to Cite

MUZAIFA, M.; ABUBAKAR, Y.; NILDA, C. Physicochemical and sensory profile of commercial wine coffee in the Gayo Highlands, Indonesia. Coffee Science - ISSN 1984-3909, [S. l.], v. 19, p. e192168, 2024. DOI: 10.25186/.v19i.2168. Disponível em: Acesso em: 13 jul. 2024.