Sensory Q-Grader evaluation of fermented arabica coffees by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and lactic bacteria (Pediococcus acidilactici) cultures
Keywords:fermentation, microorganisms, Q-grader, quality.
The objective of this study was to evaluate sensorially, by professional Q-Grader, the beverage coffee from fermentation natural and fermentation with the use of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures in wet coffee processing. The Arabica coffee was harvested at two different altitudes in Espírito Santo State. Both coffees went through 04 treatments: inoculated with starter cultures Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YML) or Pediococcus acidilactici CCT 1622 (LAF), natural fermentation (NF) (not inoculated) and Control, without fermentation (WF). The coffee was processed by just the wet process. After process and roasting, the sensorial analysis was performed to understand the impact of fermentation processing in the coffee quality, and was performed by 6 Q-Graders, following SCA protocol. The study evidenced that the use of natural fermentation or starter cultures during post-harvest coffee contributed to obtain a quality beverage with pleasurable sensorial characteristics, punctuated by the tasters in the overall score obtained and also by the high
sensory scores in attributes such as fragrance, acidity, aftertaste and the different perceived aromas. This work demonstrates for coffee growers that fermentation technology is not intuitive but requires an understanding of the relationship of the microorganisms with the coffee and the environment. In addition to the other chemical aspects of roasting and brew coffee.
Key words: Fermentation; Microorganisms; Quality.
AKIYAMA, M. Characterization of headspace aroma compounds of freshly brewed arabica coffees and studies on characteristic aroma compounds of ethiopian coffee. Journal of Food Science, 73(5):335-346, 2008.
AVELINO, J. Effects of slope exposure, altitude and yield on coffee quality in two altitude terroirs of Costa Rica, Orosi and Santa María de Dota. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85(11):1869-1876, 2005.
BOSSELMANN, A. S. et al. The influence of shade trees on coffee quality in small holder coffee agroforestry systems in southern Colombia. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 129(1-3):253-260, 2009.
BICHO, N. C. et al. Impact of roasting time on the sensory profile of Arabica and Robusta coffee. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 52(2):163-177, 2013.
BRESSANI, A. P. P. et al. Characteristics of fermented coffee inoculated with yeast starter cultures using different inoculation methods. Food Science and Technology, 92:212-219, 2018.
BRÖHAN, M. et al. Influence of storage conditions on aroma compounds in coffee pads using static headspace GC–MS. Food Chemistry, 116(2):480-483, 2009.
CANONICO, L. el al. Evolution of aromatic profile of Torulaspora delbrueckii mixed fermentation at microbrewery plant. Fermentation, 6(7):1-9, 2020.
CAPLICE, E.; FITZGERALD, G. F. Food fermentations: Role of microorganisms in food production and preservation. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 50(1):131-149, 1999.
CRUZ, C. D. GENES - a software package for analysis in experimental statistics and quantitative genetics. 2015. Versão Windows Viçosa: UFV. Available in: www.ufv.br/dbg/genes/genes.htm. Access in: October, 7, 2020.
DONG, W. J. et al. Characterization of fatty acid, amino acid and volatile compound compositions and bioactive components of seven coffee (Coffea robusta) cultivars grown in Hainan province, China. Molecules, 20:16687-16708, 2015.
EVANGELISTA, S. R. et al. Inoculation of starter cultures in a semi-dry coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation process. Food Microbiology, 44(87):95, 2014a.
EVANGELISTA, S. R. et al. Improvement of coffee beverage quality by using selected yeasts strains during the fermentation in dry process. Food Research International, 61:183-195, 2014b.
GLOESS, A. N. et al. Evidence of different flavor formation dynamics by roasting coffee from different origins: On-line analysis with PTR-ToF-MS. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 365-366:324-337, 2014.
GLOESS, A. N. et al. Comparison of nine common coffee extraction methods: instrumental and sensory analysis. European Food Research and Technology, 236: 607-627, 2013.
GONZALEZ-RIOS, O.; SUAREZ-QUIROZA, M. L.; SCHORR-GALINDOC, S. Impact of ‘‘ecological’’ post- harvest processing on coffee aroma: II. Roasted coffee. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20(3-4):297-307, 2007.
GROSCH, W. Coffee: Recent developments. In: GROSCH, W. Chemistry III: Volatile compounds. Edited by Clarke RJ, Vitzthum OZ. Oxford: Blackwell Science, p.68-89, 2001.
KWON, D. L. Scientific knowledge in traditional fermented foods. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 5(3):153-154, 2018.
LEE, L. W. et al. Coffee fermentation and flavor - An intricate and delicate relationship. Food Chemistry, 185:182-191, 2015.
MAREK, G. et al. Detection and differentiation of volatile compound profiles in roasted coffee arabica beans from different countries using an electronic nose and GC-MS. Sensors, 20(7):e2124, 2020.
MASSAWE, G. A.; LIFA, S. J. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria coffee fermentation starter cultures. International Journal Postharvest Technology Innovation, 2(1):41-82, 2010.
O`SULLIVAN, M. G. Handbook for Sensory and Consumer-Driven New Product Development: Innovative Technologies for the Food and Beverage Industry. 1st Edition Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Woodhead Publishing, 2017, 370p.
MARTINS, P. M. M. et al. Production of coffee (Coffea arabica) inoculated with yeasts: Impact on quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 99(13):5638-5645, 2019.
NAGARAJU, V. D.; BHATTACHARYA, S. Roasting green coffee beans using spouted bed roaster: Changes in physical characteristics. Journal of Food Science & Technology, 47(6):674-677, 2010.
NOOSHKAM, M.; VARIDI, M.; BASHASH, M. The Maillard reaction products as food-born antioxidant and antibrowning agents in model and real food systems (Review). Food Chemistry, 275:644-660, 2019.
OLANIRAN, A. O. et al. Flavour-active volatile compounds in beer: production, regulation and control. Journal of Institute of Brewing, 123(1):13-23. 2017.
PEREIRA, L. L. et al. Propositions on the optimal number of Q-Graders and R-Graders. Journal of Food Quality, 3285452,1-7, 2018.
PEREIRA, G. V. de. M. et al. Isolation, selection and evaluation of yeasts for use in fermentation of coffee beans by the wet process. International Journal Food Microbiology, 188:60-66, 2014.
POLTRONIERI, P.; ROSSI, F. Challenges in specialty coffee processing and quality assurance. Challenges, 7(2):1-22, 2016.
RIBEIRO, L. S. et al. Behavior of yeast inoculated during semi-dry coffee fermentation and the effect on chemical and sensorial properties of the final beverage. Food Research. International. 92:26-32, 2017.
SANTOS, K. M. et al. Classification of Brazilian Coffee using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration. Analytical Letters, 45(7):774-781, 2012.
SCHWAN, R. F.; SILVA, C. F.; BATISTA, L. R. Coffee fermentation. In: HUI, Y. H. (Ed), Handbook of plant-based fermented food and beverage technology. Boca Raton, Flórida: CRC Press, p.677-690, 2012.
SPECIALTY COFFEE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN – SCAA. Protocols. January, 23. 2013. Available in: https://sca.coffee/research/protocols-best-practices. Access in: September, 10, 2020.
SILVA, C. F. Microbial Activity during Coffee Fermentation. In: SCHWAN, R. F.; FLEET, G. H. Cocoa and Coffee Fermentations. Boca Raton, Flórida: CRC Press, p.368-423, 2014.
SILVA, C. F. et al. Evaluation of a potential starter culture for enhance quality of coffee fermentation. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 29(2):235-47, 2013.
SILVA, M. S. et al. Selection of yeasts from beekeeping products for alcoholic beverage production. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 51:323-334, 2020.
TAI, E. S.; HSIEH, P. C.; SHEU, S. C. Effect of polygalacturonase and feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus tubingensis on demucilage and quality of coffee beans. Process Biochemistry, 49(8):1274-1280, 2014.
TAMANG, J. P. Biochemical and modern identification techniques: Microfloras of fermented foods. In: BATT, C.; TORTORELLO, M. A. Encyclopedia of food microbiology. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd, p.250-258, 2014.
TOLEDO, P. R. A. B. et al. Relationship between the different aspects related to coffee quality and their volatile compounds. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 15(4):705-719, 2016.
TOLESSA, K. et al. Prediction of specialty coffee cup quality based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans. Talanta, 150:367-374, 2016.
VITZTHUM, O. G. Thirty years of coffee chemistry research. In: TERANISHI, R.; WICK, E. L.; HORNSTEIN, I. Flavor chemistry: Thirty years of progress. New York: Kluwer/Plenum, p.117-134, 1999.
How to Cite
Os direitos autorais dos artigos publicados nesta revista pertencem aos autores, com os primeiros direitos de publicação pertencentes à revista. Como os artigos aparecem nesta revista com acesso aberto, eles podem ser usados livremente, com as devidas atribuições, em aplicativos educacionais e não comerciais.