Chemical and sensory perception of robusta coffees under wet processing
Keywords:Robusta Coffee, Infrared Spectroscopy, Chemometrics, Fermentation, Acidity
The quality of the coffee is determined by the sensorial analysis, using subjective methods and it is known that this quality is related to the chemical constituents of the grains. The present study used infrared spectroscopy to correlate the chemical composition of the grain with the final quality of the product and to assist in the current evaluation method, generating more reliability in the process. This study applied the spontaneous and induced fermentation
with starter cultures (yeast) to evaluate the sensory potential from the impacts generated by the types of processes adopted. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with five replicates, in a 3x4 factorial scheme, with three fermentation times: 24, 48, and 72 hours and four
wet processes: Washed, Yeast fermentation, Fully washed without yeast, and Fully washed with yeast. Infrared spectra were taken in the medium region
(FTIR-ATR) of the 34 samples generated by the treatments. Given that the method of determining the quality of coffee is subjective, based on scores given by cuppers, the FTIR-ATR spectra were used in the construction of chemometric models to predict sensory ratings given to the attribute ‘acidity’. The
mean error of prediction of the model constructed for the sensory score was 0.11. Sensory results indicated a higher score for the acidity attribute, in dry fermentation with yeast at the time of 48 hours, suggesting a new strategy for the production of quality robusta coffee.
Key words: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; chemometrics; fermentation; acidity.
ALONSO-SALCES, R. M. et al. Botanical and Geographical Characterization of Green Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora): Chemometric Evaluation of Phenolic and Methylxanthine Contents. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(10):4224-4235, 2009.
BALZER, H. H. Acids in coffee. In: CLARKE, R. J.; VITZTHUM, O. G. (Ed.). Coffee. Recent developments. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 18-30, 2001.
BHUMIRATANA, N.; ADHIKARI, K.; CHAMBERS, E. Evolution of sensory aroma attributes from coffee beans to brewed coffee. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44(10):2185-2192, 2011.
CARRERA, F. et al. Authentication of green coffee varieties according to their sterolic profile. Analytica Chimica Acta, 370:131-139, 1998.
CASTRO, R. D. de.; MARRACCINI, P. Cytology , biochemistry and molecular changes during coffee fruit development. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 18:175-199, 2006.
COMPANHIA NACIONAL DE ABASTECIMENTO - CONAB. Primeiro Levantamento de Safra. 6: 2018-2019, n1. Disponível em: < file:///C:/Users/lucas/Downloads/BoletimZGraosZoutubroZ2018.pdf>. Acessado em 29 de novembro de 2018.
CORREIA, R. M. et al. Portable near infrared spectroscopy applied to quality control of Brazilian coffee. Talanta, 176:59-68, 2018.
DA SILVA, T. J. H. et al. Potential markers of coffee genotypes grown in different Brazilian regions: A metabolomics approach. Food Research International, 61:75-82, 2014.
DE BRUYN, F. et al. Exploring the impacts of postharvest processing on the microbiota and metabolite profiles during green coffee bean production. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 83(1):e02398, 2017.
PEREIRA, G. V. M. et al. Conducting starter culture-controlled fermentations of coffee beans during on-farmwet processing: Growth, metabolic analyses and sensorial effects. Food Research International, 75:348-356, 2015.
DI DONFRANCESCO, B.; GUTIERREZ GUZMAN, N.; CHAMBERS, E. Comparison of results from cupping and descriptive sensory analysis of colombian brewed coffee. Journal of Sensory Studies, 29(4):4301-311, 2014.
EVANGELISTA, S. R. et al. Inoculation of starter cultures in a semi-dry coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation process. Food Microbiology, 44:87-95, 2014a.
EVANGELISTA, S. R. et al. Improvement of coffee beverage quality by using selected yeasts strains during the fermentation in dry process. Food Research International, 61:183-195, 2014b.
FILGUEIRAS, P. R. et al. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems Evaluation of trends in residuals of multivariate calibration models by permutation test. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 133:33-41, 2014.
JOËT, T. et al. Influence of environmental factors, wet processing and their interactions on the biochemical composition of green Arabica coffee beans. Food Chemistry, 118:693-701, 2010.
KURNIAWAN, M. F. et al. Metabolomic approach for understanding phenolic compounds and melanoidin roles on antioxidant activity of Indonesia robusta and arabica coffee extracts. Food Science and Biotechnology, 26(6):1475-1480, 2017.
LEE, L. W. et al. Coffee fermentation and flavor – An intricate and delicate relationship. FOOD CHEMISTRY, 185:182-191, 2015.
LIU, P. et al. Sensory Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Maillard Reaction Products from Soy Protein Hydrolysates with Different Molecular Weight Distribution. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5:1775-1789, 2012.
LOPES, W. A.; FASCIO, M. Esquema para interpretação de espectros de substâncias orgânicas na região do infravermelho. Química Nova, 27(4):670-673, 2004.
MASSAWE, G. A.; LIFA, S. J. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria coffee fermentation starter cultures. International Journal Postharvest Technology and Innovation, 2 (1)41-82, 2010.
MAZZAFERA, P. Chemical composition of defective coffee beans. Food Chemistry, 64:547-554, 1999.
NGUYEN, T. N. H.; BYUN, S. Y. Combined changes of process conditions improved aromatic properties of Vietnamese Robusta. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 18(2):248-256, 2013.
PAVIA, D. L.; LAMPMAN, G. M.; KRIZ, G. S. Introduction to Spectroscopy. 3rd. ed. Orlando, USA: Thomson Learning, 32-65, 2001.
PEREIRA, G. V. M. de. et al. Isolation, selection and evaluation of yeasts for use in fermentation of coffee beans by the wet process. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 188:60-66, 2014.
PEREIRA, L. L. et al. Influence of Solar Radiation and Wet Processing on the Final Quality of Arabica Coffee. Journal of Food Quality, Special Issue, Article ID 6408571, doi.org/10.1155/2018/6408571. 2018.
PORTELA, N. A. et al. Quantification of biodiesel in petroleum diesel by 1 H NMR : Evaluation of univariate and multivariate approaches. Fuel, 166:12-18, 2016.
PEREIRA, L L. et al. Propositions on the Optimal Number of Q-Graders and R-Graders. Journal of Food Quality, 2018(Special Issue):1-11, 2018.
QUINTERO, G. I. P.; MEJÍA, J. M.; BETANCUR, G. A. O. Microbiología de la fermentación del mucílago de café según su madurez y selección. Cenicafé, 63(2):58-78, 2012.
RIBEIRO, B. B. et al. Avaliação química e sensorial de blends de Coffea canephora Pierre e Coffea arabica L. Coffee Science, 9(2):178-186, 2014.
RIBEIRO, J. S.; FERREIRA, M. M. C.; SALVA, T. J. G. Chemometric models for the quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of Arabica coffee beverages using near infrared spectroscopy. Talanta, 83(5):1352-1358, 2011.
RIBEIRO, L. S. et al. Controlled fermentation of semi-dry coffee ( Coffea arabica ) using starter cultures : A sensory perspective. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 82:32-38, 2017.
SANTOS, J. R. et al. Exploiting near infrared spectroscopy as an analytical tool for on-line monitoring of acidity during coffee roasting. Food Control, 60:408-415, 2016.
SPECIALTY COFFEE ASSOCIATION - SCA. Protocols. January, 23, 2015. Available in: <http://www.scaa.org/PDF/resources/cupping-protocols.pdf>. Acess in May 20, 2019.
SEO, H. S.; LEE, S. Y.; HWANG, I. Development of sensory attribute pool of brewed coffee. Journal of Sensory Studies, 24(1):111-132, 2009.
SILVA, C. F. et al. Succession of bacterial and fungal communities during natural coffee ( Coffea arabica ) fermentation. Food Microbiology journal, 25(8):951-957, 2008.
SILVA, C. F.; BATISTA, L. R.; SCHWAN, R. F. Incidence and distribution of filamentous fungi during fermentation, drying and storage of coffee (Coffea Arabica L.) beans. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 39(3):521-526, 2008.
SILVERSTEIN, R. M.; WEBSTER, F. X.; KIEMLE, D. J. Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds. 7th. ed. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, INC, 82-95, 2005.
TFOUNI, S. A. V. et al. Effect of roasting on chlorogenic acids, caffeine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels in two Coffea cultivars: Coffea arabica cv. Catuaí Amarelo IAC-62 and Coffea canephora cv. Apoatã IAC-2258. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 47(2):406-415, 2012.
UGANDA COFFEE DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY - UCDA. Robusta Cupping Protocol. 2010. Available in: https://ugandacoffee.go.ug/sites/default/files/Resource_center/UCDA%20Annual%
Report_2011-2012_0.pdf. Access in June 20, 2019.
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. USDA. Coffee: World Markets and Trade. Foreign Agricultural Service June 2017. Available in: <https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/coffee.pdf>. Access in June 05, 2017.
VAAST, P. et al. Fruit thinning and shade improve bean characteristics and beverage quality of coffee ( Coffea arabica L .) under optimal conditions. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86(2):197-204, 2006.
VELMOUROUGANE, K. Impact of Natural Fermentation on Physicochemical , Microbiological and Cup Quality Characteristics of Arabica and Robusta Coffee. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 83:233-239, 2013.
WEI, F. et al. Complex mixture analysis of organic compounds in green coffee bean extract by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 48(11):857-865, 2010.
WEI, F. et al. A pilot study of NMR-based sensory prediction of roasted coffee bean extracts. Food Chemistry, 152:363-369, 2014.
How to Cite
Os direitos autorais dos artigos publicados nesta revista pertencem aos autores, com os primeiros direitos de publicação pertencentes à revista. Como os artigos aparecem nesta revista com acesso aberto, eles podem ser usados livremente, com as devidas atribuições, em aplicativos educacionais e não comerciais.