Heriyanti Heriyanti, Yulia Panggabean, Enggar Tyas Pangestu, Rayandra Asyhar, Sutrisno Sutrisno


The roasting process has brought about some changes in transition phases, in chemical characteristics, and microstructures of minerals in the Liberica coffee beans. Two initial roasting temperature variations were carried out to study the thermal behavior and characteristic of Liberica coffee, namely 200 °C and 230 °C. The thermal behaviour of phase changes of the Liberica green and ground coffee after the roasting process has been identified by using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Chemical functional groups and molecular structures have been well-analyzed by using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) and X-Ray Powder Diffractions (XRD) for the green and roasted Liberica coffee. The DSC spectra indicated a high decomposition process that occurred during thermal treatment with crystallization and melting temperature around 120 °C and 325 °C for both roasting initial temperature variations, respectively. The FTIR and LC-MS are able to identify the chemical change in both the green and the roasted coffee. The dominant compounds found in the roasted Liberica coffee are caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and dehydrocafestol. The XRD spectrum indicates that there is an amorphous phase for the green coffee and a sucrose crystal phase for the roasted coffee within the activity in 2θ = 20.3° and 21.1°.


Coffea liberica Hiern, differential scanning calorimetry, roasting process, spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction

Full Text:



ALESSANDRINI, L.; ROMANI, S.; PINNAVAIA, G.; ROSA, M. D. Near infrared spectroscopy: An analytical tool to predict coffee roasting degree. Analytica Chimica Acta, Netherlands, v. 625, n. 1, p. 95–102, 2008.

ARYA, M.; RAO, L. J. M. An impression of coffee carbohydrates an impression of coffee. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, UK, v. 47, n. 1, p. 51–67, 2010.

BALLESTEROS, L. F.; SILVERSKIN, C.; TEIXEIRA, J. A.; MUSSATTO, S. I. Chemical, functional, and structural properties of spent coffee grounds and coffee silverskin chemical, functional, and structural properties of spent coffee. Food Bioprocess Technol. US, v. 7, n. 12, p. 3493–3503, 2014.

BRONDI, A. M.; TORRES, C.; GARCIA, J. S.; TREVISAN, M. G. Differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric analysis to the determination of coffee adulteration by corn. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, Brazil, v. 28, n. 7, p. 1308–1314, 2017.

CHAN, S.; GARCIA, E. Comparative physicochemical analyses of regular and civet coffee. Manila Journal of Science, Philippines, v. 1, n. 7, p. 19–23, 2011.

CLIFFORD, M.; JOHNSTON, K.; KNIGHT, S.; N. KUHNERT. Hierarchical scheme for LC–MSn identification of chlorogenic acids. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, US, v. 51, n. 1, p. 2900–2911, 2003.

DAVIS, A.; CHESTER, M.; MAURIN, O.; FAY, M. Searching for the relatives of coffea (Rubiaceae, Ixoroideae): The circumscription and phylogeny of coffeeae based on plastid sequence data and morphology. American Journal of Botany, US, v. 94, n. 3, p. 313–329, 2007.

DIAS, R. C. E.; BENASSI, M. D. T. Discrimination between arabica and robusta coffees using hydrosoluble compounds: Is the efficiency of the parameters dependent on the roast degree? Beverages, Switzerland, v. 1, n. 3, p. 127–139, 2015.

EDZUAN, A. M. F.; ALIAH, A. M. N.; BONG, H. L. Physical and Chemical property changes of coffee beans during roasting. American Journal of Chemistry, USA, v. 5, n. 3A, p. 56–60, 2015.

ELMER, P. Guide to selection of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). USA: PerkinElmer Inc, 2014. p. 1–6.

FARAH, A.; DONANGELO, C. M. Phenolic compounds in coffee, Braz. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, Brazil, v. 18, n. 1, p. 23–36, 2006.

GARRETT, R; VAZ, B. G.; HOVELL, A. M. C; EBERLIN, M. N; REZENDE, C. M. Arabica and Robusta Coffees: Identification of Major Polar Compounds and Quantification of Blends by Direct-Infusion Electrospray Ionization − Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 60, p. 4253-4258, 2012.

HEIGL, N.; HUCK, C. W.; RAINER, M.; BONN, G. K. Near infrared spectroscopy , cluster and multivariate analysis hyphenated to thin layer chromatography for the analysis of amino acids. Amino Acids, Austria, v. 31, n. 1, p. 45–53, 2006.

HUCK, C. W; GUGGENBICHLER, W; BONN, G. K. Analysis of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in coffee by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) compared to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, v. 538, p. 195–203, 2005.

HURTTA, M.; PITKA, I.; KNUUTINEN, J. Melting behaviour of D-sucrose, D-glucose and D-fructose. Carbohydrate Research, UK, v. 339, p. 2267–2273, 2004.

LEE, J. W.; AVENUE, S. G; STATES, U; THOMAS, L. C; SCHMIDT, S. J. Effects of heating conditions on the glass transition parameters of amorphous sucrose produced by melt-quenching. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 59, p. 3311–3319, 2011.

PATUI, S.; LUISA, C.; CARLO, P.; MARCO, Z.; LANFRANCO, C.; LORENZO, D. T.; LUCIANO, N.; ANGELO, V.; ENRICO, B. Lipase activity and antiocidant capacity in coffee (Coffee arabica) seeds during germination. Plant Science, Netherlands, v. 219–220, p. 19–25, 2014.

PATAY, É. B.; NIKOLETT, S.; TAMAS, K.; RITA, C.; VIKTORIA, L. B.; TIBOR, S. N.; TIBOR, N.; NORA, P. Antioxidant potential, tannin and polyphenol contents of seed and pericarp of three Coffea species. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, India, v. 9, n. 4, p. 366–371, 2016.

PERDANA, B.M.; MANIHURUK, R; ASHYAR, R; HERIYANTI; SUTRISNO. Evaluation of the effect of roasting process on the energy transition and the crystalline structures of Arabica, Robusta, and Liberica coffee from Jambi Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. v. 345, 2018.

REIS, N.; FRANCA, A. S.; OLIVEIRA, L. S. Discrimination between roasted coffee, roasted corn and coffee husks by diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform Spectroscopy. LWT–Food Science and Technology, US, v. 50, n. 2, p. 715–722, 2013.

RIVERA, W.; VELASCO, X.; GÁLVEZ, C.; RINCÓN, C.; ARANGO, P. Effect of the roasting process on glass transition and phase transition of Colombian Arabic coffee beans. Procedia Food Science, UK, v. 1, p. 385–390, 2011.

SAW, AK-C.; YAM, W.; WONG, K-C.; LAI, C-S. A comparative study of the volatile constituents of southeast asian coffea arabica, coffea liberica and coffea robusta green beans and their antioxidant activities. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, UK, v. 18, no. 1, p. 64–73, 2015.

SCHENKER, S.; HANDSHIN, S.; FREY, B.; Perren R.; ESCHER, F. pore structure of coffee beans affected by roasting conditions. Food Engineering and Physical Properties, UK, v. 65, no. 3, p. 452-457, 2000.

YANG, N; LIU, C; LIU, X; DEGN, T. K; MUNCHOW, M; FISK, I. Determination of volatile marker compounds of common coffee roast defects. Food Chemistry, UK, v. 211, p. 206–214, 2016.



  • There are currently no refbacks.